Congratulations to all Eco Tribes for their Public Celebrations! The Public Events Showcased an Immense Pride for each Eco Tribe Garden, School and Local Community.

Public Events in Date Order

Rowan Tree Eco Warriors

Monksland National School, Grange

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The Crazy Daises, “Strength Comes with Unity”

Presentation Primary School, Drogheda 

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The Sallygardeners, “Brave, Strong, Humble”

St. Francis National School, Blackrock

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The Harestown Hawthorns, “Nature Creates Itself”

St. Patrick’s National School, Harestown (Monasterboice)

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Neantóga (The Stingers)

Aston Village Educate Together National School, Drogheda

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The Blackthorns, “Learning, Friendship, Fun”

St. Peter’s  National School Dromiskin

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Dromiskin 1

The following is a list of evaluation categories for the Eco Tribes Challenge. Take time to prepare the information to be presented under each category with designated students. A Tidy Towns team member may wish to be present to add information.

Remember to check your garden the morning before judging, particularly for vandalism and litter. 

Eco Tribes Evaluation Categories

Partnership with Tidy Towns, 25 Marks (Did your Eco Tribe work as a team with your local Tidy Towns group? Describe how you worked together. Remind students of the names of the Tidy Towns members.)

Work Plan and Design, 20 Marks (Discuss your garden design, how it developed and how it was implemented with Tidy Towns members, parents, etc. How did the garden take shape step-by-step? Does the garden showcase particular Celtic symbols, or ideas from the Celtic Bealtaine season.)

Public Event, 25 Marks (Community members must be present as well as parents. What were the activities of the public event? What feedback did the garden receive from local community members and parents?)

Budget-Value for Money, 20 Marks (Value for money use of garden centre vouchers, use of salvaged materials, voluntary assistance from parents/garden/environmental specialists/community members, and donations of public event materials/costumes/refreshments.)

Documentation of Project, 20 Marks (This is the project blog, or wall display, or scrapbook or Power Point presentation)

Awareness/Lessons Learned, 20 Marks (What have students learned about environmental gardening, garden design, Celtic symbols, Celtic history, etc. as a result of the project?)

Liaison with Groundswell, 20 Marks (Communication with Pamela Whitaker throughout the project)

Maintenance Plan, 20 Marks (How will the school and their Tidy Towns group continue to maintain the garden in the long term?)

Long Term Impact, 25 Marks (How will the garden benefit the community?)

Total Marks: 195 Marks

The evaluation of the Eco Tribe projects will take place during the week of May 29th. The names of the judges are Mary Murtagh and Kathleen Muckian.

Please contact Pamela if your require further information and clarification regarding the evaluation categories. 

 

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 Project Checklist – Public Events

  • As your Eco Tribe develops a plan for your public event consider a rehearsal or run-through of your activities beforehand. The Eco Tribes teacher should delegate and seek support from colleagues, Tidy Towns volunteers, and parents.
  • Write out an agenda and circulate to public event helpers and facilitators.
  • If you plan to have children speak outdoors to a large audience, use a microphone and sound system.
  • Ask children to try and memorise any spoken word pieces they will present. This is equally true for songs.
  • If performances are not part of your public event, encourage Eco Tribe students to feel comfortable facilitating activities and talking with parents and adults from the local community.
  • If children will be walking on a local road ensure there are escorts to walk with the students and also volunteers to stop traffic or direct traffic away from the walking route.
  • Designate a couple of people to take photographs of the public event and ask them to forward these photos for your project scrapbook, display, blog or Power Point presentation.
  • Designate students to meet and greet parents and guests.
  • A few students may wish to ask public event attendees what they like about their garden. This information can be used for your project documentation.
  • Remember the public event is a celebration that is enjoyable and fun!

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The May Custom of Flowers at the Doorstep, Source: http://www.museum.ie

Mary Reynolds, A Garden for Ceremony

“Create a garden that is alive with the energy and exuberance of nature…With this loving and mutually respectful relationship, you will feel forever supported, grounded and safe…My method of creating a powerfully conscious garden simply suggests using some kind of ceremony to focus your feelings and intentions into a particular form and direction. You can make up your own ritual, as long as you believe it works. Belief is the key.” 

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Picture: Matt Cardy/Getty Images Published in the Irish Post

Beltane, Traditions of Ireland’s May Day Festival 

By Aidan Lonergan, The Irish Post

Beltane comes from the Celtic word meaning “fires of Bel” – a reference to the Celtic sun deity, Belenus.

  • The ancient Celts used Beltane to celebrate the coming summer with feasts and rituals that honoured fertility.
  • Until the 19th century, the ancient practise of driving cattle between two bonfires – a custom that magically shields animals from disease – was still practised in Ireland.
  • Beltane is one of four major Celtic pagan festivals, along with Samhain, Imbolc and Lughnasadh.
  • Celebrants mark the holiday by lighting fires, dancing, feasting and performing fertility rites.
  • Beltane is a time for planting and cultivating. Certain trees have distinct associations with the pagan festival, including ash, oak and hawthorn.
  • Beltane is all about fire and bonfires are the most iconic symbol of the festival. Fire represents purification and revitalisation after the winter time, with ancient people believing it to bring a good fortune and a good harvest.

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Gorse May Bush in Monasterboice, 2017

Fill in the Gaps

“Fill in the open spaces with a community of plants… in the absence of plant cover, mulch the area heavily with whatever material is at hand including grass clippings, organic straw and leaves. A deep mulch protects and nourishes the soil, represses weeds and encourages plants to grow far more quickly than they would have done without the cover”

Advice from Mary Reynolds

Natural Slug Control

Plants are at risk of slug damage once planted. Try some natural slug control ideas:

Dried and crushed egg shells, pine needles, gravel, sand, wood ash, and human/cat/dog hair can create barriers to repel slugs.

Stepping stones, grapefruit halves, flower pots, cardboard, or black plastic will attract slugs during the day. Capture the slugs under stepping stones, grapefruit halves, etc. and then move them to a new home away from your garden (e.g. a hedge that is not too close to your garden).

Eco Tribes Evaluation Categories

Partnership with Tidy Towns, 25 Marks (Did your Eco Tribe work as a team with your local Tidy Towns group? Describe your collaboration.)

Work Plan and Design, 20 Marks (Discuss your garden design, how it developed and how it was implemented with Tidy Towns members, parents, etc.)

Public Event, 25 Marks, (Community members must be present as well as parents)

Budget-Value for Money, 20 Marks (Value for money use of garden centre vouchers, use of salvaged materials, voluntary assistance from parents/community members, donation of public event materials)

Documentation of Project, 20 Marks (This is the project blog, or wall display, or scrapbook or Power Point presentation)

Awareness/Lessons Learned, 20 Marks (What have students learned about environmental gardening, garden design, Celtic symbols, Celtic history, etc. as a result of the project?)

Liaison with Groundswell, 20 Marks (Communication with Pamela Whitaker throughout the project)

Maintenance Plan, 20 Marks (How will the school and their Tidy Towns group continue to maintain the garden in the long term?)

Long Term Impact, 25 Marks (How will the garden benefit the community?)

Total Marks: 195 Marks

The evaluation of the Eco Tribe projects will potentially take place during the week of May 22nd and onwards. The names of the judges are Mary Murtagh and Kathleen Muckian.

 

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A May bush in Monasterboice, McGovern’s Farm, May 2017. This May bush is a piece of gorse, tied to a drain pipe, with the flowers held together by the thorns of the gorse branch.

A Film About Mary Reynolds: Dare to be Wild, Tuesday, May 9th, 2pm, An Tain Arts Centre, Dundalk

An Tain Arts Centre in Dundalk will be showing a film about the garden designer Mary Reynolds and her preparation for her 2002 Chelsea gold medal. Tickets are free but booking is essential: Booking Office : 042 9332332 (This film is for adults and not intended for children)

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Photo: Mary Reynolds Garden at Kew Gardens in London, based on the poem The Stolen Child by William Butler Yeats.

“We punish land for evolving. We tell it to get back in its box for when the neighbours come around. But our role should be as guardians, not gardeners. We need to be part of the land again.” Mary Reynolds: Gardening’s Wild Child, Interview in the Daily Mail, 2016)

“Weaving atmosphere into a piece of land is like telling a story and placing the listener under a spell. An effective way to begin weaving that story is to build the design around a poem or a story that is already brimming with suggestive imagery. By holding the atmosphere of the poem or story in your mind when you are dreaming up the design, you can recreate the same feeling in the land.” Mary Reynolds, The Gardening Awakening

“Gardeners have to remember that it is not about what they want, but about what the land wants.” Mary Reynolds, Chelsea Flower Show, http://www.bbc.com

Ogham Alphabet

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Ogham Stone, Currower, Co. Mayo

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Ogham Stone, Aghascrebagh, County Tyrone

“Ogham alphabetOgham [pronounced “OH-ehm”] is a 25 letter alphabet that was used in Celtic/Early Christian Ireland from approximately the 4th to the 7th Century. When inscribed on stone monuments the alphabet consists of a series of carved lines, normally cut across the sharp edge/corner [arris] of the stone & designed to be read from bottom to top.”

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“What is interesting is that trees figured largely in the naming of the Ogham letters. Originally eight letters were named after trees -birch, alder, willow, oak, hazel, pine, ash and yew. Their selection gives us clues as to the importance of these trees in early Irish society. Scholars in the Middle Ages built on the prominence of tree names in the alphabet and read other tree names into the remaining letters, resulting in a tree alphabet.” (The Ogham Alphabet, Forestry Focus, http://www.forestryfocus.ie)

Full-Ogham-alphabet

The Book of Kells: A Masterpiece of Celtic Design

“From roughly 550 to 1000 CE, Celtic culture fused with Christian Biblical theology to produce a golden age of illuminated gospel manuscripts. The most renowned texts included the Cathach of St. Columba (early 7th century), the Book of Durrow (c.670), the Lindisfarne Gospels (c.698-700), the Echternach Gospels (c.700), the Lichfield Gospels (c.730) and the Book of Kells (c.800).

It was during this period of the early Christian era that Ireland earned its nickname land of saints and scholars, an achievement based in part upon the cultural traditions of its Celtic heritage. (Source: Celtic Culture: Characteristics of Celts Visual Art, Language, Religion http://www.visual-arts-cork.com)

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Project Checklist

  • Begin to plan activities for your public event. The public event launches the Eco Tribe garden. Eco Tribe members can dress in costumes, make Celtic themed props, and share art, music, poetry, dance or drama. Each Eco Tribe will select the art forms that best reflect their interests and Celtic garden design. Some schools may include a walking procession as part of their public event. Refreshments can also be part of the event, perhaps reflecting the Celtic diet in some way. A special guest can be invited to speak and a local newspaper can be contacted about the launch. Each Eco Tribe will create their public event in their own way to reflect their character, motto and the personality of their community.
  • Confirm dates and times for public events with Pamela. Remember that the public event should include members of the local community. These could be invited guests from a neighbourhood, or a particular local group (e.g. Resident’s Association, Active Retirement Group, Parent’s Association, etc.). The public event does not need to take place during school hours, it can take place after school or during the weekend. Remember to tell your Tidy Towns Together team the date of your public event so that they can attend.
  • Select a date to go to the garden centre with a few students. Do not take the whole class as the garden centres have requested that a car load (or two) of students is more suitable so that students can stay together, work out their budget and participate more easily as a small group.
  • In the warm weather remember to water your plants often. Plants in pots can be soaked in buckets filled with water before they are planted. Use your nettle and seaweed liquid feeds to water your plants. When planting, after you have dug a hole, some homemade compost can be put into the planing hole, to add nutrients to the soil. The roots of the plants will take up these nutrients.

Eco Tribes Evaluation Categories

Partnership with Tidy Towns, 25 Marks (Did your Eco Tribe work as a team with your local Tidy Towns group? Describe your collaboration.)

Work Plan and Design, 20 Marks (Discuss your garden design, how it developed and how it was implemented with Tidy Towns members, parents, etc.)

Public Event, 25 Marks, (Were members of the community present as well as parents?)

Budget-Value for Money, 20 Marks

Documentation of Project, 20 Marks (This is the project blog, or wall display, or scrapbook or Power Point presentation)

Awareness/Lessons Learned, 20 Marks (What have students learned about environmental gardening, Celtic design, Celtic history, etc. as a result of the project?)

Liaison with Groundswell, 20 Marks (Communication with Pamela Whitaker throughout the project)

Maintenance Plan, 20 Marks (How will the school and their Tidy Towns group continue to maintain the garden in the long term?)

Long Term Impact, 25 Marks (How will the garden benefit the community in the long term?)

Total Marks: 195 Marks

The evaluation of the Eco Tribe projects will take place during a visit by two judges after the public events are completed potentially during the week of May 22nd.

 

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http://www.sophisticatedfloral.com

May Day is associated with a wide range of traditions in Ireland, most of which welcome the summer, celebrated the renewal of life, the growth of crops and birth of livestock and the hope of a good harvest to follow. (Source: Ben Simon, Tales, Traditions and Folklore of Ireland’s Trees)

Project Checklist

  • Begin to prepare your garden site for planting. Rotted compost can be dug into the garden bed to improve the quality of the soil.
  • Photograph site preparation for your project display, blog or Power Point presentation. Remember to always photograph each stage of the project and include it as part of your project’s documentation.
  • Select a date for your Public Event between the dates of May 8-May 20. Remember that the public event should include members of the local community. These could be invited guests from a neighbourhood, or a particular local group (e.g. Resident’s Association, Active Retirement Group, Parent’s Association, etc.). The public event does not need to take place during school hours, it can take place after school or during the weekend. Please let Pamela know the date of your public event as soon as possible. Remember to tell your Tidy Towns Together team the date of your public event so that they can attend. 
  • Begin to plan activities for your public event. The public event launches the Eco Tribe garden. Eco Tribe members can dress in costumes, make Celtic themed props, and share art, music, poetry, dance or drama. Each Eco Tribe will select the art forms that best reflect their interests and Celtic garden design. Some schools may include a walking procession as part of their public event. Refreshments can also be part of the event, perhaps reflecting the Celtic diet in some way. A special guest can be invited to speak and a local newspaper can be contacted about the launch. Each Eco Tribe will create their public event in their own way to reflect their character, motto and the personality of their community.
  • Select a date to go to the garden centre with a few students. Do not take the whole class as the garden centres have requested that a car load (or two) of students is more suitable so that students can stay together, work out their budget and participate more easily as a small group.
  • Try making some organic tonics for your garden. An empty two litre milk carton can be filled with water and nettle leaves and/or washed seaweed can be added. When the water changes colour and begins to smell this liquid feed can be used to water your newly planted garden. The seaweed helps produce new roots to establish the plants in your garden, and nettles will help to provide new leaf growth.

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Photos: ‘Celebrate May Day, Revive the Ancient Tradition of Giving Away Poises by Hannah Bullivant Huffington Post UK and May on Our Doorstop by Orla Henihan http://www.ouririshheritage.org

May Day

“No one ever told us then that Mayday was the beginning of the old Celtic quarter festival of Bealtaine. Or that May was Baal or Bel’s month and the word Bealtaine derived from ‘Bels fire’, the fire of Belenos, Celtic God of the Sun.” (Source: A Bealtaine Custom, Joe Mc Gowan, http://www.sligoheritage.com)

“The first of May is the beginning of summer. This is the light half of the yer, when the sun grows to its height at midsummer and then begins to wane until, at Samhain, the dark half of the year begins again. The sun grows stronger, and this is celebrated with fires and dancing.

Bealtaine fires were lit as beacons on hilltops. The first fire was lit on the hill of Uisneach at the centre of Ireland. When the Uisneach fire was seen from afar, this was a signal to light the fire on the local hill and so the fires spread, radiating out from there until a network of hilltop fires was alight throughout the country, re-enlivening the land with the warmth of the sun.

The summer was welcomed by setting up a May bush. Flowers, mostly yellow flowers (gorse, buttercups, celandine, primroses, marigolds, cowslips) were gathered before dusk on May Eve. These were made into posies and hung over windows and doors or strewn loose on the threshold and floor of the house. They might also be tied to cows’ horns or tails or to agricultural equipment. Children also brought flowers to the older members of their community.

The May bush- a branch or bough of a tree – was set up outside the house in the yard or fields to guard against bad luck. In different parts of the country different trees were used, some places favouring the sycamore, others rowan, hazel or elder. The May bush was decorated with flowers, ribbons, streamers and coloured eggshells saved from Easter eggs.” (Source: Celebrating Irish Festivals by Ruth Marshall).

May, The Month Of Mary

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Photo: Sheila Joyce and daughter Riona making a May altar, http://www.irishindependent.ie

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Photo:May altar in Kitchen, Castlestrange, Co. Roscommon. 1983
May altar in Kitchen, Castlestrange, Co. Roscommon. 1983

Traditional May Day Customs in Ireland
By Clodagh Doyle, Curator Irish Folklife Division

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Source: Roaringwater Journal, http://www.roaringwaterjournal.com, by Kevin Danaher

May Bush

A May Bush from Ben Simon’s Book, Tales, Traditions, and Folklore of Ireland’s Trees

“Since medieval times in Ireland, there has been a strong association with the devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary during the month of May. Much of the traditions associated with May have been incorporated into the Marian processions found throughout the country.

Children and adults collected flowers for crowning Our Lady in town processions. They also used them to decorate grottoes, shrines and church altars. It was and still is very common to have a home altar either in the kitchen or outside in the farmyard. Sometimes the flowers picked for this altar were made into crosses. The maintenance of these altars and their replenishment with fresh flowers continued on from the 1 May, throughout the month.

Bring flowers of the rarest
bring blossoms the fairest,
from garden and woodland and hillside and dale;
our full hearts are swelling,
our glad voices telling
the praise of the loveliest flower of the vale!

O Mary we crown thee with blossoms today!
Queen of the Angels and Queen of the May.
O Mary we crown thee with blossoms today,
Queen of the Angels and Queen of the May…

May Hymn to Our Lady”

(Source: Our Irish Heritage, http://www.ouririshheritage.org)

The Mary Month of May: The Yearly Traditions that Welcome in Summer (From queens and altars to parties and primroses, the many ways to celebrate) by Ailin Quinlan for the Irish Independent, May 1, 2017

“[May 1st] is Mayday, a date which is still, for many rural communities, a time for remembering the ancient customs which for thousands of years celebrated the arrival of summer – and protected homes against the supernatural.”

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Photo: http://www.circleofpinetrees.com

“In Sligo, Mayo and Roscommon summer is still welcomed in with blossoms – wildflowers are strewn on roofs, windowsills and doorways and bunches of primroses and bluebells decorate home-made kitchen altars. In the Co Cork village of Whitegate, young girls will go ‘garlanding,’ or flower-gathering, in preparation for their picturesque Queen of the May procession this weekend, which, as it has for generations, takes place on the first Sunday in May.”

Clodagh Doyle, Curator of the National Museum of Ireland’s Irish Folklife Division, says:

“It’s about welcoming the summer but also about looking for protection for families, their homes and their livestock against supernatural forces such as fairies or people with the evil eye.

“Early summer flowers are usually yellow or blue –daffodils, primroses, buttercups, for example. Their yellow reflects the brightness and warmth of summer and is believed to protect the home.

“There was a belief that people with evil intentions could not pass such beautiful flowers, so they’d be placed on the thresholds of doors, on windowsill and on wells.

“The worship of the Goddess of Summer is at the root of the old May-time rituals although the focus has changed since medieval times to encompass the Christian worship of the Virgin Mary.

“A lot of those traditions have been incorporated into Marian processions – they changed with changing culture but the essence remains the same,” Clodagh explains.
Strewing Mayflowers, or ‘Marsh Marigolds’ on roofs, windows and thresholds has been a tradition for generations at the family farm of author and local historian Joe McGowan at Mullaghmore, Co Sligo.

“You pick Mayflowers and put them on roofs windows and doorways. It’s been a tradition here for hundreds of years. It goes back to pre-Christian times,” he explains.
“The idea is to celebrate spring and re-birth.”

(Source: The Mary Month of May: The Yearly Traditions that Welcome in Summer, May 1, 2017, The Independent)

Why do People Tie Pieces of Cloth to Trees?

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Photo Source: Brigid of Faughart Festival, Faughart, Co. Louth, http://www.brigidoffaughart.ie Cloth typed at the Head Stone at Faughart.

“Usually the rags are placed there by people who believe that if a piece of clothing from someone who is ill, or has a problem of any kind, is hung from the tree the problem or illness will disappear as the rag rots away. Sometimes the rag represents a wish or aspiration which will come to pass as the rag rots.” (Source: http://www.dochara.com)

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Photo Source: Terri Windling

“This is not a practice unique to Europe’s pagan and Celtic Christian traditions. Trees are considered sacred in many ancient cultures around the world, and offerings left in or below specials trees (called Holy Trees, Prayer Trees, Wishing Trees, Peace Trees, etc.) can be found in many lands, representing many different beliefs and religions.” (Source: The Blessings of the Trees by Terri Windling, http://www.terriwindling.com)

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Source: The Irish Times, May 7, 2016, The Festival of Fires, Hill of Uisneach in Co Westmeath.

Bealtaine Ideas by Glennie Kindred from her book Letting in the Wild Edges

Pass around a basket of ribbons and each take three. Tie your three ribbons on a tree of your choice with three wishes: one for the earth, one for yourself, and one for your community.

Gather around an outdoor fire and pass around a basket of dry sticks. What do you wish to let go of? Throw a stick into the fire and let go of any problems that hold you back.

Making a temporary labyrinth. “Walking the labyrinth is traditional at Bealtaine. A labyrinth is one continuous path in and out. To make a labyrinth mark out five concentric circles with sticks or stones. Once these are in place, decide where the entrance will be and what pathways need to be blocked off. Stones can be used to do this. Using hazel stakes and ribbons you can also mark out a temporary labyrinth for events.

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Photo: Source Glennie Kindred, Letting in the Wild Edges

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Photo: http://www.thenaturalparentmagazine.com

Making a Flower Garland in Celebrating Irish Festivals by Ruth Marshall

Materials: Lots of Flowers, Needle and Thread

Method: Thread a wool (large needle) with strong thread and tie a large knot at the end. Push the needle through the first flower and push the flower down to the knot at the end of the thread. Continue to thread flowers as if stringing a necklace with beads. You can use different coloured flowers and add in leaves. Bluebells, lilac, daisies, and many other wild and garden flowers can be strung in this way.

Project Checklist

  • Finalise your garden design with Tidy Towns members and begin to prepare your garden site for planting in early May. Photograph site preparation for your project display, blog or Power Point presentation. Remember to always photograph each stage of the project and include it as part of your project’s documentation.
  • Try making some organic tonics for your garden. An empty two litre milk carton can be filled with water and nettle leaves and/or washed seaweed can be added. When the water changes colour and begins to smell this liquid feed can be used to water your newly planted garden. The seaweed helps produce new roots to establish the plants in your garden, and nettles will help to provide new leaf growth.
  • Select a date for your Public Event between the dates of May 8-May 20. Remember that the public event should include members of the local community. These could be invited guests from a neighbourhood, or a particular local group (e.g. Resident’s Association, Active Retirement Group, Parent’s Association, etc.). The public event does not need to take place during school hours, it can take place after school or during the weekend. Please let Pamela know the date of your public event.
  • Begin to plan activities for your public event. The public event launches the Eco Tribe garden. Eco Tribe members can dress in costume, make Celtic themed props, and share art, music, poetry, dance or drama. Each Eco Tribe will select the art forms that best reflect their interests and Celtic design of their garden. Some schools include a walking procession as part of their public event. Refreshments can also be included, perhaps reflecting a Celtic diet in some way. A special guest can be invited to speak and a local newspaper can be contacted about the launch. Each Eco Tribe will create their public event in their own way to reflect their character, motto and the personality of their community.

Loughcrew

The megalithic cairns around the Slieve na Caillaigh hills (mountains of the witch) at Loughcrew (near Oldcastle, County Meath) are illuminated by the sun on Spring and Autumn Equinoxes (the beginning of Spring and Autumn). Whereas Newgrange is famous for the sun entering a stone passage on the darkest day of the year (December 21st), at Loughcrew light enters at sunrise around March 21st and September 21st.

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Loughcrew Equinox Stones, Photo Sources:www.megalithicireland.com and http://www.mythicalireland.com

Newgrange

“Newgrange is a Stone Age (Neolithic) monument in the Boyne Valley, County Meath, it is the jewel in the crown of Ireland’s Ancient East. Newgrange was constructed about 5,200 years ago (3,200 B.C.) which makes it older than Stonehenge and the Great Pyramids of Giza…Newgrange was built by a farming community that prospered on the rich lands of the Boyne Valley. Knowth and Dowth are similar mounds that together with Newgrange have been designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.”(Source: http://www.newgrange.com).

Asterix, the Celtic Gaul warrior visits a Druid to receive a magic potion to give him strength to fight against Romans warriors who wish to take over his village.

A Tonic for Strength: A Herbal Drink for Eco Tribes

Try to make a ‘magic potion’ inspired by the Asterix cartoon. In a pot simmer a selection of herbs in hot water. You can try using one or more herbs below. After you make a herbal tea, strain the herbs, let the tea cool and then add either apple juice, elderflower cordial, pineapple juice, or other kinds of sparkling juices available in supermarkets or health food stores to make the tea more favourable. Try the herbal drink in class and see if it gives you mental and physical strength, like the tonic the Druid gives Asterix.

Rosemary= Aids concentration, memory and relaxation.

Sage= For clear thinking, vitality and improving the immune system.

Thyme= Recovery from colds and chest infections and can also be applied to the skin as an antiseptic.

Mint = To relieve headaches, stress, and to boost energy.

Nettles = High in iron and vitamin C, nettle tea is a traditional Spring tonic for health and energy.

Nettle Soup, A Soup for Eco Warriors

There are many nettle soup recipes online, find one that you like best.

Source: http://www.donalskehan.com

INGREDIENTS

100g butter
1 large leek or 2 medium- sized leeks, chopped
4 cups nettle tops, chopped
450g potatoes, sliced
1 litre chicken or vegetable stock
Salt and freshly ground pepper
150 ml cream
Chive flowers to garnish

  • Heat the butter until foaming. Add the chopped leek and the nettle tops and cook until they look glossy.
  • Stir in the potatoes, then add the stock.
  • Simmer gently for 30–35 minutes.
  • Sieve or liquidise the soup, return to the heat, season to taste and add the cream.
  • Garnish with chive flowers and serve hot

Nettle Compost and Leaf Mould, Ideas from Mary Reynolds

Nettle Compost

“Dig a hole approximately 30 cm deep and fill it with a big bundle of nettles, then cover them and leave them there until the following spring. When you dig up the nettles you will find a crumbly, rich compost in its place. You can mix this compost with leaf mould to produce potting soil for germinating seeds. A practical reminder: mark the location where you buried the nettles so you can find them the following year!”

Leaf Mould

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“Find a corner of your garden to make a big pile of leaves (you can also put autumn leaves in a hessian bag or black bin bags with some holes or use chicken wire or similar to keep your leaves together in a pile). The leaves will decompose into a fine-textured material that forms underneath the pile as the leaves decompose…it is particularly useful as an ingredient in making potting soil for germinating seeds.”

Leaf mould can also be found on the ground in forests, this is an easy way to collect leaf mould to examine its texture which retains moisture and adds nutrients to the soil.

Compost

If your school has a compost, or if Eco Tribe children have a compost pile at home, a few bucketfuls can be added to your garden to enrich the soil, encourage worms, and help to retain moisture in your Celtic garden.

A Tonic for Plants To Encourage New Growth

Try making seaweed and nettle liquid feeds to water your plants. Carefully pick nettles using gloves and scissors. Do not use any nettle seed heads with your water, as these could produce new nettle plants. The nettle leaves will decompose in the water, and release nitrogen to nourish your plants. When you pick seaweed take seaweed that is not attached to rocks, after a storm you will find seaweed tossed up on the shore.

 

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Photo: A Celtic Shield

“The first recorded use of the term ‘Celt’ dates to 500 BC when the Greeks used it to describe peoples occupying a wide swathe of Europe north of the Alps…The word Celtic brings together a series of moments across the history of Western Europe when particular communities made art and objects that reflect a different, non-Mediterranean, way of thinking about the world…While the Celts are not a distinct race or genetic group that can be traced through time, the word ‘Celtic’ still resonates powerfully today, all the more so because it has been continually redefined to echo contemporary concerns over politics, religion and identity” (Neil MacGregor, Former Director of the British Museum)

Profile of a Celtic Warrior

  • Spiked Hair
  • Blue Protective Tattoos on Face and Body
  • Cloak or Tunic
  • Leather Belt
  • Neck Torc
  • Sword
  • Spear
  • Decorated Shield

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Photo: Celtic Shields Project, Sandycroft Primary School, Wales

Asterix, a French cartoon representing the Celts (or Gauls as they are known in France) and the Romans. The Romans try and control the Gauls in the cartoon (originally a comic) and Asterix and his fellow Celts (including warriors and druids) resist the Romans through their wit, strength, magic potions and clever ways.

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The Hill of Tara, “In prehistory and historic times 142 Kings are said to have reigned in the name of Tara. The coronation stone called The Lia Fail or Stone of Destiny has rested here down the ages. And it was here that the most powerful of Irish Kings held their great inaugural feasts and were approved by Earth Mother Goddesss Maeve” (Source, http://www.hilloftara.org). In ancient times and within mythology, The Hill of Tara was considered a powerful and magical place. Tara is one of the largest Celtic historic sites in all of Europe. The Hill of Tara was associated with the Bealtaine or Maytime Festival and fires were lit here at the start of May so that they could be seen across half the counties of Ireland.

Project Checklist

  • Finalise your garden design with Tidy Towns members and begin to prepare your garden site for planting in early May. Photograph site preparation for your project display, blog or Power Point presentation. Remember to always photograph each stage of the project and include it as part of your project’s documentation.
  • Select a date for your Public Event between the dates of May 8-May 20. Remember that the public event should include members of the local community. These could be invited guests from a neighbourhood, or a particular local group (e.g. Resident’s Association, Active Retirement Group, Parent’s Association, etc.). The public event does not need to take place during school hours, it can take place after school or during the weekend.
  • After the holidays, begin to plan activities for your public event. The public event launches the Eco Tribe garden. Eco Tribe members can dress in costume, make Celtic themed props, and share art, music, poetry, dance or drama. Each Eco Tribe will select the art forms that best reflect their interests and Celtic design of their garden. Some schools include a walking procession as part of their public event. Refreshments can also be included, perhaps reflecting a Celtic diet in some way. A special guest can be invited to speak and a local newspaper can be contacted about the launch. Each Eco Tribe will interpret the public event in their own way to reflect their character, motto and the personality of their community.

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Photo: The Turoe Stone, Bullaun, Co. Galway. A well preserved example of Celtic Art.


Project Checklist

  • Over the school holidays students may be interested in visiting (with their families) The National Museum of Ireland, local museums in Dundalk and Drogheda, libraries and historic sites associated with ancient Ireland, e.g. The Hill of Tara, Newgange, Proleek Dolmen, Faughart/Brigid’s Well, Castletown Motte (Cúchulainn’s Mound), Monasterboice, Cúchulainn Stone, etc. These sites are either local to the Dundalk area or located in County Meath.
  • Eco Tribe students may be helping Tidy Towns volunteers to prepare their garden site with family and community members over the next couple of weeks.
  • Eco Tribes may also be researching information about the Celts, writing down information, drawing pictures, etc. that can be taken to school for your project displays.
  • Choose a date for your Public Event between May 8th-20th.

The Celts

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Photo: Iron Age Collar Lough found at Foyle at Broighter, Collars are associated with Celtic Kings and Gods, Co. Derry, http://www.museum.ie

“The Celts are a people who appear in Irish history in the sixth century BC, though their migrations took place at a far earlier date, over a period from around 2 000 BC. From their base in central Europe, they spread westwards to the Atlantic coast in to Spain and northwards into Britain and Ireland. A multi-ethnic collection of peoples…linked by language and art…” (Source: Ancient Ireland: The User’s Guide by Gerald Conan Kennedy)

The Celtic Nations

Ireland, Scotland, Brittany, Wales, Cornwall and the Isle of Man are know as the Celtic Nations as historic languages from these areas can be traced back to Celtic traditions.

Information about the Celts

  • The Celts lived during the Iron Age, from about 600 BC to 43 AD. This is the time when iron was discovered and used.
  • The Iron Age ended when the Romans invaded Britain and set up their own civilisation and government.
  • The people who lived in Britain during the Iron Age weren’t called ‘Celts’ until the 1700s. The name is used to describe all the different tribes that lived in Britain then.
    There were three main branches of Celts in Europe – Brythonic, Gaulic and Gaelic. Brythonic Celts (Britons) settled in England.
  • The Celts believed in many different gods that affected every part of everyday life. Druids, who were priests in Celtic society, tried to figure out what the gods wanted
  • Most Celts were farmers, and they lived in houses that were round instead of square.
  • In battle, Celts mainly fought with swords and spears, and they used long shields to protect themselves.
  • Men and women in Celtic times usually wore long tunics with different accessories, such as coats, capes or belts.The Celts wore brightly coloured clothing, and made fabric dyes from berries, plants and even seaweed.
  • The Celts lived in round houses with thatched roofs – they were made in the shape of circles, rather than with four walls.
  • Many Celts were farmers, so they grew their own food and learned where they could gather nuts, berries and honey around their village.
  • The Celts also kept their own cows, chickens and other livestock – sometimes the animals would come into their homes at night, as they didn’t have their own stable.(Source: http://www.theschoolrun.com)

Celtic Round Houses

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Celtic Food

The Celts ate foraged foods and herbs and grew carrots, onions, turnips and parsnips. Grains were grown for porridge and breads. Nuts and berries were gathered, and eggs were eaten with different types of meat and fish. Nettles were cooked as well. Grains were made into porridges and breads. Herbs were used for seasoning included wild garlic and parsley.

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Celtic Cooking on a fire where a hanging pot was used for cooking. Hot stones could also be used to cook food.

Celtic Clothing

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“The Celts were fond of bright colours and would have used brightly coloured dyes made from berries, seaweed and plants. Wool was one of the most commonly used materials in the Celtic times. Cloaks were simple rectangles of linen or woollen cloth, either plain, striped, or displaying plaid patterns usually about six feet square. Bright colours like purple, crimson and green were common; other colours included blue, black and yellow.” (Source: http://www.thetainmarch.net)

Ancient Music and The Bards

“Music was so important to the ancient Celts that a group evolved called the Bards. Brads were wandering singers, storytellers, and poets.  In time, the Bards became as powerful as the druids (priests and teachers). The bards could promote or destroy your reputation with a song.” (Source: http://www.celtsmrdonn.org)

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“Ireland has one of the richest folklore traditions in the world. This is primarily due to the fact that the Celtic culture has been maintained for more than 2,000 years and the tradition of oral composition and performance has been strong throughout Irish history.
The Irish hold a great appreciation for the ‘spoken word’ and the use of language and have created a unique and beautifully poetic oral literature. In ancient Celtic society bards held a position of esteem, second only to kings. Bards memorized vast amounts of poetry which they performed live, and their poems and songs were often the only historical record available. Some may consider them to be historians. Bards evolved into storytellers called ‘seanachies’ who wandered from town to town. In this informal way, an ancient oral literary tradition continued into modern times. The seanachie is an important link in Celtic/Irish cultural heritage and continues to play a dominant role in the oral tradition, bringing old stories to life for modern day listeners.” (Source: http://www.irishcentral.com)

Druids

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Druids acted as teachers, priests and judges. Photo Source: http://www.britannica.com,

“The Celts believed that demons and spirits were everywhere. They believed that omens and portents were everywhere. They counted on their priests, the druids, to keep them safe from trouble.

The druids were responsible for all religious rituals, because the only person who could talk to a god was a druid. The druids were the…the teachers, the doctors, the philosophers, and the lawyers in Celtic society. To become a druid, you had to study with the elder druids for at least twenty years. The druids had their own universities.

The Celtic people went to the druids for everything. If a child was sick, you went to your druid, who might cure the child with medicine they made from a plant. If two people were having a fight over a boundary, a druid would decide who was right and who was mistaken.” (Source: http://www.celts.mrdonn.org)

Ireland’s Ancient East

Click this link: https://www.irelandsancienteast.com/discover/stories/themes/ancient-ireland

Look for the picture below with the words Ancient Ireland 

Watch the film: DISCOVER THE STORY OF ANCIENT IRELAND

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Symbols of Celtic Gods and Goddesses from Mythology

Morrigan: Battle

Aengus: Love, Youth, Poetry and Inspiration

Brigid: Healing, Craft, Poetry

Lir: The Sea

Áine: Summer and Wealth

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Public Events: Choose a Date between May 8th-20th

Project Checklist

  • Finalise your garden design and meet with Tidy Towns volunteers this week. Local Tidy Towns groups may wish to dig or prepare your garden site over the Easter school holidays.
  • There might be a group of children from your Eco Tribe who are interested in working with Tidy Towns volunteers one or two days over the school holidays to prepare your garden. Select these dates in consultation with Tidy Tidy volunteers this week. When you have one or two dates notify parents/guardians (parents/guardians will accompany their Eco Tribe children) so that families can get involved in the project.
  • Museum and library trips over the holidays can be used to research your chosen Celtic theme. The County Museum in Dundalk and Drogheda Museum Millmount are worth checking out. If students are in Dublin The National Museum has examples of metalwork from the Celtic Iron Age. Also families may wish to visit local archaeological and historical sites such as The Hill of Tara or Newgrange.
  • Artwork and costumes can be started for your public event in May. Even if you only have a rough idea of what your public event may be props and costumes can be started over the next few weeks.
  • Decide on a name for your Eco Tribe and a motto (slogan or rallying cry) that describes the character and beliefs of your Eco Tribe. You can create a symbol for your group that may be inspired by a Celtic knot or your own style of design.
  • At this stage your Eco Tribe should have decided on the format for displaying project information either on a classroom wall, a scrap book, Power Point presentation, or blog. Keep taking photographs of every aspect of your project and keep adding them to your presentation. For teachers who are new to blogging check out WordPress, there are You Tube tutorials to get you started. Open an account, select a template for your blog and then add posts with photographs and information.

The Celtic Seasons by Dolores Whelan

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A Description of the Celtic Seasons by Dolores Whelan who lives in Ravensdale, County Louth.

Samhain

The Celtic year begins at Samhain. Darkness and night dominate the northern hemisphere and nature sleeps. Halloween represents the gateway into the dark half of the year. The focus is on the inner journey. This is the soul’s journey through darkness, from where new life emerges. Here we are invited to let go of outer activity, bring the focus inwards to embrace a process of growth that is slow and unforced.

Imbolc

At Imbolc, having emerged from the darkness of the Winter Solstice, we welcome the returning light. We explore the emergence of this new light, invoke it into our hearts as we tend our emerging dreams, hopes and possibilities. At this time, we especially invoke and honour Brigid, Goddess and Saint, who embodies the creative impulse as it awakens and quickens in the land and in our hearts and lives.

Bealtaine

May-time marks the Celtic festival or Bealtaine associated with brightness, fire, sun and summer. The Eve of Bealtaine represents the gateway into the bright half of the year. At Bealtaine we mark the transition from winter to summer, from the dark to the bright half of the year. We celebrate the flowering of the seeds sown in the dark time. Bealtaine marks a time of expansiveness within us and within the natural world.

Lughnasadh

The festival of Lughnasadh marks the harvest of the year’s journey and work, which began in the darkness of Samhain. It celebrates the culmination of the forces, which interacted to ensure a successful harvest in both the land and our own lives.

Uisneach Fire Festival, The Hill of Uisneach, County Westmeath, The Mythological Centre of Ireland

“One of the most enduring legends of Uisneach is that it was the location for the first great fire to be lit in Ireland. To usher in the first dawn of summer in May, the Uisneach hearth burned biggest and brightest of all; visible to over a quarter of Ireland. Hearths were extinguished in every Irish home and fireplace in the country, in anticipation of a new flame from Uisneach’s Bealtaine fire. It must have been an extraordinary sight, with the country plunged into utter darkness ahead of this sacred festival. Using the flame from Uisneach, fires were then ignited on the other sacred hills of Ireland. When lit they created a unique ‘fire eye’ over the island, ushering in an entire summer of sunshine.

As the centuries progressed, the great fire became the catalyst for the Bealtaine festival, an annual gathering and fair at Uisneach that continued to early modern times. It was often the first chance of the year for neighbours to greet each other after a long and often times bitter winter and great celebrations ensued, not only at Uisneach but throughout the country. Feasting, dancing, music, tournaments and trade were all avidly partaken in as the festival proceeded. It became customary to drive cattle through two fires as a way to shield them from diseases and accidents.” (Source: http://www.uisneach.ie)

May Day

“Mayday corresponds with the Irish festival of La Bealtaine, which officially heralded the beginning of summer. Its name appears to derive from the Old Irish words Bel taine meaning ‘bright fire’ and it was surrounded by a large number of folk beliefs…As the name of the festival suggests bonfires played an important part in the activities and were often lit on prominent local landmarks with the Hill of Uisneach in Co. Westmeath being the most famous example.” (Source: http://www.irisharchaeology.ie)

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May Flowers (gorse, primrose, hawthorn) left on a doorstep, window ledge, or outside a barn for protection and goodwill during the growing season (Source: http://www.irisharchaeology.ie)

Traditional May Day Customs in Ireland

By Clodagh Doyle, Curator Irish Folklife Division, National Museum of Ireland

May Flowers

“May Flowers were picked on the evening before May Day and this was often done by children who went garlanding for flowers. These were sometimes assembled together to make posies or crowns. Yellow flowers, such as primroses, buttercups and marigolds were especially popular, possibly as they reflected the sun and summer. Furze (gorse) and ferns were also put around the outside of the home.

The flowers were placed on the doorsteps of houses and on windowsills. They were believed to offer luck to the house and offer protection.They were often put on farm animals [to encourage their health over the summer months].

Children often carried baskets of flowers and strew them in front of their neighbours’ homes as a gesture of goodwill and good luck.” (Source: http://www.ouririshheritage.org)

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A May Bush in County Laois.

May Bush

“The May Bush was a decorated bush, which in rural areas was left outside the house. In towns, it was erected in a communal place. Sometimes it was carried about the area by groups of adults although later this custom was carried out by children. Geographically, the tradition was strongest in Leinster and the Midlands, stretching west to Galway and northwards to south Ulster and Donegal. The bush was often of hawthorn. The decoration usually consisted of ribbons, cloth streamers and perhaps tinsel. Sometimes the leftover coloured eggshells painted for Easter Sunday were used as decorations.” (Source: http://www.ouririshheritage.org)

May Poles

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“May Poles were popular in some large towns and possibly indicate a certain English influence. In this festive way communities welcomed in the summer. There were May poles in many towns, such as Kilkenny, Mountmellick, Kildare and Longford. There was also a strong tradition in the north east of Ireland, such as in Hollywood, Co. Down. Originally tall trees were used but later these were replaced by formal poles erected in the town centre. They were decorated with flowers and ribbons and like in England, where the tradition was more widespread, dancing and sport centred around the pole.” (Source: http://www.ouririshheritage.org)

Mary Reynolds

“Each garden must be treated as an individual – there is no one-size-fits-all recipe for success. Every piece of land has its own tribal associations, with plants that are native to that particular environment as well as ‘blown-in’ plants that will comfortably fit in.” 

“[A] garden is designed as a memory map a way for us to find ourselves if we get lost.”

“Symbols help you hold an image in your mind..By including them in your design, their meaning will be automatically instilled in the garden. This is why they must have special significance for you; if they don’t, the symbol will not hold any special healing power…Symbols evoke a particular energy and send it in a focused direction. Hold the symbol or the image you want to use in your mind…The root of the word imagination is image. Focus on the image…eventually you will find a way to work it into your garden. Drawing the symbol on a stone and placing it in the garden is also a good idea'”

(Source: The Garden Awakening: Designs to Nurture Our Land and Ourselves by Mary Reynolds)

 

Bridgets-24

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Brigit’s Garden, Winner of the Georgina Campbell Family Friendly Destination of the Year 2017, http://www.brigitsgarden.ie This garden was designed by Mary Reynolds.

 

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The Celtic Theme

The Celtic theme for the project can be broadly interpreted and can relate to both a time in history, or a garden that reflects Irish culture both past and present. The garden can include Irish folklore and myth or ideas relating to the Celtic imagination.

“The key to my simple method of design is harmony. The aim is to create spaces that feel right; spaces that appeal to the heart rather than the intellect” Mary Reynolds, The Garden Awakening

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Project Checklist

  • Have your students sketch out a few ideas for their garden design. Meet with your Tidy Towns partner to discuss your ideas. Keep the design simple.
  • Finalise your site selection with your Tidy Towns partner.
  • Once you have decided on whether your project will be documented in a scrap book, blog, Power Point or wall display, ask students to contribute research on your Celtic theme. Take photographs of every stage of your project.
  • Develop a name for your Eco Tribe based on an Irish tree, flower, herb or wild plant. After you select a name you can decide on a symbol/logo for your group and a motto.
  • Decide on a Celtic theme for your garden, refer to last week’s blog for examples of themes.
  • Delegate Project Activities: Students will take on the following roles: garden designers, researchers, gardeners, public event coordinators, reporters of the project’s activities (in a scrapbook, wall display, blog, Power Point presentation, or video), project artists and designers (for your symbol/logo, public event props, costumes, classroom display, scrap book, etc.).

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The Circle and Spiral in Garden Design

“The circle and sphere are connected to wholeness and unity. The spiral is a symbol of growth and movement. Concentric circles suggest that all things are affected by each other. The spiral can act as a symbol of meditation. The flow of water, air, energy, thoughts, and the growth of every living thing – all these occur in a spiral pattern. ” Mary Reynolds, The Garden Awakening

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The Celtic Tree of Life: A Link Between Earth and Sky, A Symbol of the Cycles of Nature

The Tree of Life in Garden Design

“The Tree of Life is an ancient universal symbol that describes the world existing on three levels; the world of our ancestors (the roots), the world of spirit (the crown of the tree), and the world we live in (the earth level where the trees emerges from the ground)…The tree of life garden is a moving meditation. It is a simple way for people to access the knowledge and guidance that is always there for us.” Mary Reynolds, The Garden Awakening

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The Celtic Myth of the Green Man is associated with Spring and new growth.

The Plant List

The plant list for the Celtic themed garden can include cottage garden flowers that are traditionally used in Ireland (e.g. Lupins,  Delphiniums, Phlox, Foxgloves, Verbascum, Geraniums, etc. ). They do not have to be native flowers, although wildflowers can be included in the gardens. Herbs can also be selected for your Celtic garden.

An Irish native tree (or trees) can be used in your garden design.

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Celtic Knots have no beginning or end and may represent cycles of life.

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A Raised Bed Based on a Spiral Theme

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Ideas for Celtic themed garden decorations.

“We have simply forgotten who we are. We are the guardians of this planet. That is our role in this system we live in. In return for caring for nature, she will repay us with an abundance of all that we need. We have temporarily forgotten that we are children of the earth. Our mother is worn out and needs us now, so we must grow up, step up, and become the caretakers. Guardians are needed now, not gardeners. If you can just slow down and reintroduce yourself to the earth, a magical gate will open for you. Make a promise that you are committed to your land’s guardianship, willing to help it grow strong and healthy, and Nature will carry you with her on the path.” Mary Reynolds

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Photos Above: Mary Reynolds, Chelsea Gold Winning Garden in 2002

Here is a list of Celtic Themes, they are ideas that you can use for your Eco Tribe or to inspire your own research into Celtic history, folklore, culture, ritual, etc.

“Your garden will have its own core truth and distinctive personality, its own sense of itself..By listing carefully and allowing the land to become an extension of ourselves, we can interpret its energy and enable it to emerge through a creative, collaborative process.

I use the word co-creation…[which] means you are building the garden hand in hand with a partner, and in my approach that partner is nature. It is based on the acknowledgement and understanding that nature is a conscious living entity, real and present, that is willing to join this process” (Mary Reynolds, The Garden Awakening, p. 44-45)

The word Celtic can have a broad interpretation. It can relate to a historic period, or also apply to traditional Irish culture and traditions. Here is a list of topics that will inspire your research, garden design and public event ideas.

  1. Celtic Folklore
  2. Traditional Irish Cures and Medicines from Nature
  3. Ogham, An Ancient Irish Alphabet
  4. Druids and Education
  5. Celtic Spirituality
  6. Celtic Life
  7. Celtic Nature Rituals
  8. Celtic Tribal Culture
  9. Celtic Mythology
  10. Celtic Customs
  11. Celtic Bards
  12. Celtic Celebrations and Festivals : Imbolc, Beltaine, Lughnasadh, Samhain

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Photo: Newgrange Symbols to Inspire Garden Designs

Project Checklist: Activities to Begin Your Celtic Journey

  • Develop a name for your Eco Tribe based on an Irish tree, flower, herb or wild plant. After you select a name you can decide on a symbol/logo for your group and a motto.
  • Decide if your class will document your project through a scrap book, wall display, blog, Power Point, or video. Photograph and write about each stage of your project from beginning to end.
  • Decide on a Celtic theme, based on the list above or your own ideas
  • Meet with your Tidy Towns representative to select a site for your garden.
  • Delegate Project Activities: Students will take on the following roles: garden designers, researchers, gardeners, public event coordinators, reporters of the project’s activities (in a scrapbook, wall display, blog, Power Point presentation, or video), project artists and designers (for your symbol/logo, public event props, costumes, classroom display, scrap book, etc.).

Here are two videos of Brigit’s Garden in Roscahill, Co. Galway. This garden was designed by Mary Reynolds